6.20 Criminal Penalties
A person who knowingly violates Title 49 CFR, section 171.2(g) or willfully violates a
provision of the Act or an order or regulation issued under the Act shall be fined under Title 18,
United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
6.21 Hazardous Waste Minimization Responsibilities. The general hazardous waste
minimization responsibilities outlined in chapter 3 are applicable to the functions addressed in
SECTION VII. SHIPMENT PLANNING
6.22 General. After hazardous materials have been packaged, marked, and labeled for
transportation, segregation of incompatible materials must still be maintained. Commanders
will, if feasible, designate an appropriate area of a warehouse or freight terminal as a dedicated
temporary storage area for hazardous materials awaiting shipment. Title 49 CFR, section
174.55(e), further requires that hazardous materials be stored in a secure location while they are
held for delivery or loading. Section 174.55(e) also requires that only persons involved in the
loading effort be permitted access to such materials.
6.23 Understanding the Shipping Environment
A. In recent years, there has been a gradual shift from breakbulk shipments to intermodal
transportation of hazardous materials. It is commonplace today for intermodal containers to
move, in a single trip, via three modes of transport: by highway, by rail (COFC), and by water.
Trailers can move on railcars (TOFC) and on ships (RO/RO).
B. The first step in planning a load is to understand the forces to which the load will be
subjected during shipment. Each mode of transport represents a different shipping environment
that must be accommodated in the load plan. The range of forces encountered in a single mode,
or in the combination of modes, makes proper loading and securing of hazardous materials
packages imperative. Loading and securing of freight in containers or trailers is as important as
packaging in the process of shipment preparation. Improperly loaded and secured freight can
result in underutilization of space, damaged packaging, loss of product, damage to other freight
or to the carrier's equipment, and even personnel injury and environmental damage. A container
carried on a chassis via highway, for example, will be subject to different forces than a container
carried on a rail flatcar, and therefore, a different system may be required to secure the load.
Appendix F provides some illustrations of various types of blocking and bracing applicable to
C. Since trailer loads are rarely subjected to high impacts, the highway mode is considered the
least severe shipping environment. The forward movement of improperly braced loads will be
caused by applying brakes on steep descents or by stopping suddenly to avoid hitting people or
other vehicles. Rearward movement of loads will be caused by ascending steep hills, by load
rebounds after the sudden application of brakes, or by sudden increases in speed. Sideward
movement of loads is caused by rounding corners on sharp curves, traveling on high crowned or