IZOD TEST: A pendulum-type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched is fixed at one end
and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed, as measured by the subsequent rise of the pendulum, is a
measure of impact strength or notch toughness.
JIG: A fixture or template employed to insure exact location of one part in relation to another.
JOINT EFFICIENCY: The strength of a welded joint expressed as a percentage of the strength of the unwelded base
JOINT PENETRATION: The distance weld metal and fusion extend into a joint.
K-ELECTRON CAPTURE: Electron captured by a nucleus of an electron from the K or innermost shell of electrons
surrounding it. Also loosely used to designate any orbital electron captured.
KEY SWITCH (RT): A device that requires a Key for making and breaking electrical connections.
KHz: Abbreviation for kilohertz.
KILLED STEEL: Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent such as silicon or aluminum in order to reduce the
oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.
KILOHERTZ: 1,000 Hz. Abbreviation is kHz.
KILOVOLT: Unit of electromotive force or potential equal to 1,000 volts.
KILOVOLT PEAK: The crest value of electromotive force or potential, in kilovolts, of a pulsating source of electric
LO: Symbol for near field length.
LACK OF FUSION: Two-dimensional defect due to lack of union between weld metal and parent metal,
LAMB WAVE (UT): A complex type of ultrasonic wave propagated in metal sheets up to a few wavelengths thick.
Their propagation characteristics are dependent upon the properties of the material and its thickness, along with the
frequency of the incident wave. These vibrations occur throughout the thickness of the material and consist of two
basic types, symmetrical and asymmetrical. Each of these types may have an infinite number of modes, which are
determined, by the waves incident angle. They can be very effective for detecting laminar discontinuities, but, because
of their complexity, practical application can be difficult.
LAMBDA (k): Symbol for wavelength; the eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet.