BY-PRODUCT MATERIAL (RT): In atomic energy law, any radioactive material (except source or fissionable
material) obtained in the process of producing or using source or fissionable material. Includes fission products and
many other radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors.
CALCIUM TUNGSTATE (RT): A fluorescent chemical compound which emits visible blue-violet light when activated
by either X- or gamma radiation.
CALIBRATION: The standardization of the instrument, prior to test, to a known reference value.
CALIBRATION STANDARD: See REFERENCE STANDARD.
CANNON TUBE SHIELD (RT): A tube shield in the form of a long cylinder generally supported in cantilever fashion.
The X-ray beam emerges through an aperture in the lead-lined wall of the cylinder, at right angles to its axis.
CAPILLARY ACTION (PT): The tendency of certain liquids to travel or climb when exposed to small openings,
cracks, fissure, etc., due to factors such as surface tension, cohesion, adhesion and viscosity.
CARBON STEEL: Steel that does not contain significant amounts of alloying elements other than carbon. Also known
as straight carbon, ordinary steel or plain carbon steel contains carbon up to 2%, also termed plain carbon steel or
CARBURIZE: To produce surface hardness on low carbon steels by heating above the critical range while in contact
with a suitable material containing carbon.
CARRIER FLUID (MT): A term used colloquially to designate the liquid used to carry the magnetic substance for the
CASCADE TUBE (RT): A high voltage X-ray tube of cylindrical form divided into sections, the potential difference
across each of which is a fraction of the voltage applied to the whole tube. The electron stream is accelerated to its
maximum energy in stages.
CASE: In a ferrous alloy, the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion, or core, by CASE
CASE HARDENING: Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion, or case, is made substantially harder than the
inner portion, or core. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing, cyaniding, carbonitriding, nitriding,
induction hardening and flame hardening.
CASSETTE (RT): A lightproof container used for holding the radiographic films in position during the radiographic
exposure. These holders may or may not contain intensifying and/or filter screens.
An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold.
Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape.
Liquid shrinkage - the reduction in volume of liquid metal as it cools to the liquidus.