Cold shuts appear as a distinct darkened line of variable length and definite smooth, (Heavier than Casting) outline.
Cold shuts are formed when two bodies of molten metal flowing from different directions fail to unite and form
homogeneous metal. Cold shuts may be produced by interrupted pouring, slow pouring or pouring the metal at too low
Misruns appear as prominent darkened areas of variable dimensions with a definite smooth outline. Misruns are
produced by failure of the molten metal to completely fill a section of a casting, leaving the region void. This condition
may be produced by lack of fluidity or pouring at too low temperature.
Dendritics appear as a series of irregular sharp lines usually in a parallel pattern.
Unfused chaplets may appear as a dark smooth line conforming to the shape of the chaplet and casting. In light alloy
castings unfused chaplets may also appear as light lines. This condition is caused by cold or coated chaplets or by
pouring the metal at too low temperature to fuse properly with the chaplet.
Core shift may be detected when it is possible to angle the radiation or rotate the piece in a manner that would make it
possible to measure the deviation of a specified wall thickness. Core shifts may be caused by jarring the mold, insecure
anchorage or omission of chaplets.
Surface irregularities may cause an image corresponding to any irregularity visible on the surface. These irregularities
frequently show on a radiograph and may resemble or are confused with a flaw in the metal. It is, therefore, good
practice to have the casting conveniently at hand when making an accurate interpretation of a radiograph.
Metal may be joined together by welding to form many shapes and structures required in an aircraft. This fabrication
procedure, when carefully controlled, will provide a joint that is equal in strength to the parent materials. There must
be just enough heat to produce fusion and adequate penetration, but not too much, which would cause porosity, cracks
or undercutting. Most weld discontinuities can be readily detected by radiographic inspection since they consist of a
change in material homogeneity. Cracks in welds are often detectable since they will usually occur in the direction of
the thickness of the plate and will be parallel to the X-ray beam. Stresses created in the metal by welding and not
accompanied by a physical separation of material will not be detected by radiography and cracks not properly oriented
may also be missed. Oxides created by the molten metal may be trapped in the weld. This condition results in reduced
strength and is subject to review to determine possible implication as a result of the service the weld is expected to
In tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, tungsten electrode inclusions can occur. These appear as nearly clear specks in a
radiograph due to the very high absorption of the radiation by tungsten. These inclusions usually appear in clusters of
2 or more. A single tungsten inclusion is unusual. Foreign material whose density is approximately the same as the
weld metal may not be detected. In the inspection of weldments, radiography is an indispensable tool for the location
of internal discontinuities. It is the oldest and best known nondestructive means for this purpose. It is used to establish
welding procedures, to qualify welders, to inspect welded fabrications in process, and for quality control of welded
parts. For routine inspection, test welds made periodically on production welding may be inspected by X-ray to
supplement destructive tests where results are in doubt. When quality has been established, an occasional X-ray
exposure can be made on routine work. All X-ray shadow images are geometric projections of the actual size of
conditions in or on the weld. There may be some slight distortion depending on angle of X-ray beam and distance of
the weld from the film. Density, in general, is some indication of the depth magnitude of the weld discontinuity.