(2) *Equation of state.*

(41)

Where:

many dependent variables, and the fractional pressure exponent in the burning law, although they can be evaluated by

an analog computer. Attempts have been made to simplify their relationships by assuming that the heat loss is some

definite fraction of the kinetic energy of the moving mass, by modifying y (ratio of specific heats) to account for heat

losses, or by various other assumptions. Such simplifications are successful in describing the interior ballistics of guns

where the time cycle is much shorter and the heat losses are much smaller fractions (approximately 10 percent) of the

total energy produced by the propellant. The longer functioning time of a propellant actuated device (approximately four

or five times that of a gun) permits energy losses (mostly heat losses) of from 40 to 60 percent of the total available

energy and prevents the use of such simplifying assumptions without experimental measurement of energy losses.

computer analysis of the pressure-time and acceleration-time curves (fig. 50) for the M5 catapult. Use of analog or

digital computers makes detailed analyses of this type possible.